Accountability in Local Government Institution in Sri Lanka: A Study on the Hali-Ela Pradeshiya Sabha
Dodan Godage Kanchana ☒
Post-graduate Research Fellow, Department of Political Science, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
Online Version Published: 1 July 2016
© 2016 South Asian Youth Research Institute for Development. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CCBY).
Accountability was a basic argument of establishing the local government system in Sri Lanka with some adjustments in time to time. Currently, accountability does not mean that just being showing the accounts to the hierarchical institutions and the local government institutions have to be accountable in a pluralistic way. In other words, there are dimensions of accountability namely; Political accountability, Legal accountability, Administrative accountability, Professional accountability and Social accountability. All these dimensions of accountability are questionable in local government institutions of Sri Lanka. This study has questioned that why and how these dimensions of accountability are in problematic by giving special reference to the Hali-Ela Pradeshiya Sabha which is being challenged by a lot of criticisms due to the inability of maintaining the proper accountability. The study conducted based on the qualitative data. In data collection, content analysis and case study method have been used. The descriptive analysis method has been used in the data analysis.
Keywords: Accountability, Local Government Institutions, Challenges, Hali-Ela
The discussions on accountability are increasingly becoming a topic of concern in governance literature. Especially the changes which have been highlighted by the concept of new public management have opened new aspects rather than the traditional aspects of accountability. The term accountability means “little more than the “ability” or the “possibility” that someone or something can be “accounted for” or counted up” (Ackerman, 2005: 03). In this literal sense, it doesn’t cover the various aspects such as transparency, punishment, prevention, public interest, external surveillance, social justice, etc. which expect to be achieved through the accountability machinery in an institution (Ibid). There are four important questions that need to be raised to understand the types of accountability. They are; (i) to whom is an account to be rendered? (ii) Who should render account? (iii) About what is an account to be rendered? And (iv) Why actor needs to be rendered account? (Bovens, 2007) In other words, there can be seen various dimensions of accountability based on the answers to those questions.
There are three layers in the decision making of the country after the introduction of the Provincial Council System through the 13th amendment to the Constitution of Sri Lanka in 1987 and the Local governments are the lowest tier of government. The elected Local Governments includes Municipal Councils, Urban Councils and Pradeshiya Sabhas (henceforth PS). Pradeshiya Sabhas are local councils functioning in rural areas (Hettige, 2008:416) whereas Municipal and Urban councils are confined to urban and semi-urban areas respectively (Leitan, 2010: 10). There are 23 Municipal Councils, 41 Urban Councils and 271 Pradeshiya Sabhas in the country. Each Pradeshiya Sabha has been given the authority under the Act No. 15 of Pradeshiya Sabhas which was enacted in 1987 by the Parliament of Sri Lanka. According to the Act, the PS is the closer local authority vested with traditional powers and functions related to the welfare of the inhabitants of its given territory. Though the supervision and administration of local government are devolved on Provincial Councils, the changes related to the legal matters, form, and structure of local authorities are to be determined by law. After the 13th Amendment to the Constitution, the local authorities have been given constitutional recognition and their powers have been entrenched in the Constitution for the first time (Leitan, 2010: 09). It has clearly mentioned as “Local authorities will have the powers vested in them under existing law, Municipal Councils Ordinance and the Urban Councils Ordinance. Pradeshiya Sabhas will have the powers vested in them under existing law. It will be open to a provincial Council to confer additional powers on local authorities, but not to take away their powers” (Ibid).
The PSs have located in each Divisional Secretariat areas. The most important characteristic of PSs are the functions of the committee system which has been empowered by the Act. Basically, there are four committees such as financial and policy-making, housing and community development, technical services, and environmental and amenities (Hettige, 2008: 417). The Act has further mentioned that if it is necessary to have more committees according to the complex workload of PS area because of high population and the ethnic diversity, the PS can have extra committees for the efficient and effective decision making and implementation. The performances of the PS can vary in accordance with financial and physical capacities.
The accountability mechanism of the PS is complex in nature and there are numbers of dimensions since the PS has to account to different stakeholders or forums. It’s inside institutional arrangement is also different. It is as an elected body makes decisions and also there is an administrative staff to implement those decisions. Therefore, there can be seen different actors of accountability in the PS. The defined conduct is given to the PS and not only that the PS can be creative in decision making and implementation for the maximization of people’s satisfaction. When the people’s representatives try to give their efforts to fulfill people’s desires, it shouldn’t be violating the rules, regulations and procedures. Also, by being strict with the regulatory matters and if the PS does not work creatively for the community development, the PS will be a loser in terms of varieties of its achievements. Sometimes institutional accountability machinery is well written and it is mandatory to be practiced. Sometimes it looks like a voluntary task. For example, the PS has to account to the horizontal institutions such as Community Based Organizations (CBO), Non-governmental Organizations (NGO), the people of the PS area, etc. The main purpose of this paper is to explain to what extent that the PS as a local government institution of Sri Lanka is capable of maintaining the accountability in terms of various dimensions and to identify the challenges which are being faced by them. For that purpose, the Hali-Ela PS has been studied as the case study of this research.
2. Methods and Materials
The study was based on qualitative data. In data collection, the content analysis and case study method have been used. Thus, for the content analysis, secondary data collected from the sources such as published books, journal articles, government websites, records, government legal documents, Acts and policy documents, etc. The Hali-Ela PS has used as the prime focused institution of this study. The Hali-Ela PS area has been selected as the study area since it includes all the ethnic and cultural diversities and therefore the people’s needs are also complex in nature. The Hali-Ela PS has to be proactive to provide the services to the people by ensuring the accountability. The use of case study method to analyze some critical information related to the practical scenario of the accountability of this institution was helpful. The descriptive analysis method has been used in the data analysis.
3. 1 Accountability Process of Hali-Ela Pradeshiya Sabha
The Hali-Ela PS is one of the Pradeshiya Sabhas in Sri Lanka and it belongs to Hali-Ela Divisional Secretariat (DS) Area and therefore, it is named as Hali-Ela. In general, all the Pradeshiya Sabhas have given the names in accordance with their DS areas’ names. This Hali-Ela PS is located in Badulla District which belongs to Uva Province. The legal background of all establishments of PSs is same but the way of functioning is not equal at all. It means that the practical behavior or the organizational culture is different each other. Also, the organizational culture is always depending on the characteristics such as workers’ attitudes, human and physical resources, environmental surroundings, ethnic diversity, etc.
The Hali-Ela PS consists of two major bodies such as elected decision-making body and the administrative body. All are working together to regulate, control and to administer the wellbeing of the people. The recruitments, selections and other management activities of the administrative body of the PS are done by the Uva Provincial Public Service Commission. According to the proportion of the population of the PS area, the number of the PS members is decided. There are 21 members for the Hali-Ela PS. The United People’s Freedom Alliance (UPFA) Party and the United National Party (UNP) can be taken as the major parties of it. In 2011 Local Authorities Elections, the parties such as People’s Liberation Front, Up-Country People’s Front, Jana Setha Peramuna and One Independent Group have been selected by the people as their representatives of the respective area (Department of Elections, 2011). The total number of population in Hali-Ela PS area is 90571 and it is the 2nd largest among other divisions. It includes all ethnic groups. The majority of Sinhalese represents 58463 among that population whereas the Sri Lanka Tamil, Indian Tamil, Sri Lanka Moor, Burgher, Malay, Sri Lanka Chetty, Bharatha, and Other represent 2739, 25250, 3409, 126, 383, 02, 01, 198 respectively (Department of Census and Statistics, 2012). This PS has to cover 57 Grama Niladhari Divisions. Sometimes, the huge population and the ethnic and cultural differences of it, make the decisions of PS more complicated. The organizational structure of Hali-Ela PS can be figured out as follows.
Figure 1: Organizational structure of Hali-Ela Pradeshiya Sabha
The most important activity of PS is having the general assembly (Maha Sabhawa) of it and it must be held monthly and should report to the Commissioner of Department of Local Governments (Uva Provincial). After getting the Maha Sabha decisions, no one can amend them. All the Sabha members and the administrative staff must respect them and they should be implemented in an accountable manner. Also, all the Sabha activities have been divided into several committees for to avoid the overlapping and the repetition of its activities. Each committee consists of elected members, administrative officers, experts in various fields and the people too. There were five main committees in the Hali-Ela PS and they were named as financial, technical, housing and community development, industrial and environmental. When there are kinds of unexpected activities which come as the people’s demands, then, the PS must immediately take the actions to solve them and therefore, in addition to those main committees, there can have subcommittees. For instance; the PS has a Committee called Dengue to control and to prevent the expansion of Dengue fever. According to this brief explanation, it might be clear that for what, where, how and why the PSs have been established as decision-making bodies in Sri Lanka.
All the accountability methods can be applied to the case of Hali-Ela PS. This PS has to deal with lots of public sector and private sector institutions which function sometimes parallel to it and sometimes upwards and downwards to it. Hence, this PS has to be accountable in different ways. There are strict methods to ensure the accountability of performances of the PS. Vertically the PS has to account to the Department of Local Governments (DLG), Uva Provincial Council (UPC) and to the National Ministry of Local Governments. According to the section 129 of the PS Act, the PS can have a fund and in addition to that, it is received financial resources from the Provincial and Central governments. Most of those financial allocations are related to the developmental projects. Therefore, the PS has to show that how was the financial management of those developmental projects or programs. Especially projects for the infrastructure developments can be seen. The Chairman is the main accounting officer regarding all financial and other activities of the PS.
In the same Hali-Ela PS area, the DS Office with the assistance of a network of Grama Niladharis, Samurdhi Niyamakas, rural development officers and social service officers provides public services in the rural areas. Also, the Office of the Medical Officer of Health provides the health services with the assistance of Public Health Inspectors and family health workers. Since these all institutions and public officials work in the same geographical area, the PS cannot ignore their services and it has to have kind of mutual relationships to avoid the overlapping of the services. Some development supports from the central government ministries used to give through the DS office to the PS. So both DS office and the PS have to work together to complete those developmental activities and to maintain the accountability as well. This kind of activity can be taken as an example of the horizontal accountability of the PS.
When it comes to the social accountability, the Hali-Ela PS members are unable to ignore the people’s interests. There are large numbers of the voluntary and Community Based Organizations which function in the rural area. When the PS initiates the development functions such as maternity, child welfare programs, the establishment of primary health centers, housing schemes, construction and maintenance of village works, employment programs within the PS area, there should be a meaningful participation of the people (Leitan, 2010:11). The PS Act has clearly mentioned the importance of the participation of the CBOs like rural development societies, women’s societies, youth organizations, religious societies, sports societies, etc. (Ibid). In addition to these village organizations, the Non-governmental Organizations such as Art Goal Sri Lanka, Plan International used to give supports related to the financial and physical resources of the PS. Those NGOs are very keen to do the role of watchdog regarding the progress of their works and when they basically have deals with the PS, they don’t forget to report to the highest authorities, especially to the DLG and to the UPC. Therefore, the Hali-Ela PS is must account in a proper way to those NGOs while reporting to its supervisory institutions as well.
Thus, this PS has its obligation to accountable to the other diagonal forums too. The Auditor General has been given the authority to audit the all public sector institutions including local authorities by the article 154 of the Constitution of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. That power has further enhanced by the PS Act and its section 172 (Auditor General’s Department-Sri Lanka, 2015). If any misconduct of the PS, it will be reported to the Parliament by the Audit Department. The parliament will take necessary actions regarding the offenders. There are financial rules and regulations which must generally be followed by all the public sector institutions and the PSs.
3.2 Hali-Ela Pradeshiya Sabha: Accountability in Practice and Challenges
Even though it has been passed several decades for its establishment, it is still suffering from various failures. The accountability of the PS is challenged not only because of faults of one group. It is basically because of the faults of political and administrative people of the Hali-Ela PS. Sometimes, the existing institutional and legal frameworks also make more complicated issues for the functions of the political and administrative institutions at the rural level. Some accountability issues which are related to the Hali-Ela PS can be explained as follows.
3.2.1. Negative Perception
For the success of the service delivery mechanism of the PS, the PS members, administrative staff and the people should have a mutual understanding of each other’s work. Especially, it is essential to have positive relations between the PS members and the PS staff towards enhancing the efficient and effective services to the people of the PS area. The people in the Hali-Ela division give their votes to elect 21 members for the Hali-Ela PS and all PS members must be responsible and accountable to people’s interests. If it is not, they are unable to survive their political life. This should be understood by the administrative staff of it. But, the existing system is not fully functioning in that manner. The administrative staff is blaming for politicians and politicians are blaming for administrative people by saying that they are not giving enough supports to carry out their activities. Also, the common people of the PS area used to blame on the activities of both of them and people’s credibility is not there. The Hali-Ela PS is very much popular to people’s criticisms. Sometimes other administrative institutions of the Hali-Ela PS area also use to criticize the PS activities. When the new staff members are to be appointed to work there by the Uva Provincial Public Service Commission, the general view is to discourage them by saying that “it is hopelessly corrupted institution”. However, with pros and cons regarding its role, it is still being functioned. No any serious argument on it to eradicate it from the local governance. The people’s demand is to ensure the accountability of its activities on their behalf.
People’s perception is that politicians are not working according to the rule of law and according to the choices of them. They gave the enormous promises before the elections, but after coming to power, they don’t practice them in the realm and it has become as “no choice but only the noise is there”. Thus, the people used to believe that the PS is for only the contractors and others are only going to pay the taxes. On the other hand, the PS Staff use to think that why the system has created this kind of institution by having the elected members and they are unable to work efficiently and effectively due to their political pressures. The Civil Servants must work according to the rules and regulations and also according to the PS decisions. All the PS decisions are not rational at all and going with the rules and regulations because most of the elected people are not aware of them and as they came to power for four or five years. All the PS members are very much keen to hide their failures in front of the common people by raising their hands to the civil servants. Actually, there is a plain conflict in between PS members and the administrative staff.
3.2.2. Traditional Working Pattern
The way of working of both the PS members and the PS staff to serve to the public looks so traditional yet. Because of that traditional working pattern, the people have left it far away from other governmental institutions such as Divisional Secretariats and other public health and agriculture related institutions. There can be seen more people’s trust on Urban Councils, Municipal Councils rather than the PSs in Sri Lanka. Though the PS members are happy to see more people are gathering in the PS, the civil servants try to avoid the public due to the political pressure. When the people are reaching to the PS expecting services, the civil servants used to think it as another political pressure.
The PS is very much famous for thoroughfare activities and of charging taxes from the people. But the majority of people are not satisfying with those services. Especially when it comes to the infrastructure developments, they aren’t keeping the trust with them due to their negligence of quality of services and the tendency to have the bribery and corruption by misusing the authority. Though the PS has enough power to create by-laws as mentioned below to earn money for the wellbeing of the PS itself and of the people, the PS members do not even try to think about it and they think that doing the things to change the system may affect to lose votes. In section 129 of the PS Act, the power to create by-laws has mentioned as;
“The powers of any Pradeshiya Sabha to make bylaws under this Part shall without prejudice to the generality of the powers thereby conferred, include the power to make by-laws for or in respect of all of any of the following purposes: meetings and procedure, officers and servant, taxation, loans, the imposition, levy and recovery of rates and charges, land and property, roads and thoroughfares, buildings, public health and amenities, itinerant vendors, animals, public or private markets and fairs, …” (CommonLII, 2009: Accessed on 29.05.2015).
Although the experts who come from the various fields of the civil service represent the staff of the PS does not give enough supports to make policies in a creative way. They do think that if they give their advice to PS members to make policies, they will definitely be misused by them. Since the civil society is also not aware of the provisions of PS Act, the most of the creative activities remain silence. The PS can supply not only the services but also productions to the people and to the other institutions. But, it doesn’t create the goods and also the services according to the demands which come from the society. There is a conflict between the traditional working behavior and societal demands too. The social accountability of the Hali-Ela PS cannot be seen due to the PS politicians’ and the civil servants’ lack of creative, innovative and expertise knowledge and confidence. If this scenario remains same, the maintenance of the system may further be an extra burden to the government.
Resources can be divided into two groups such as human and physical. Resource problem is common to all PSs in Sri Lanka. Limited numbers of financial allocations are given by the central and provincial governments. But, the PS Act has been given enough authority to make policies and take actions to earn money. The art of gaining money to the PS should be created by the PS members and the staff together. But, this doesn’t happen in the present system of the Hali-Ela PS. The main excuse that the PS members use to keep in front of the people is that “the PS has no resources”. But that is not the obligation of them. There is wastage of money for the use of PS vehicles―, especially for the PS Chairman’s vehicle. The PS secretary and the staff are always blaming on that. Also, money waste can be seen for the unnecessary documentary works and PS meetings. Though there are no productive decisions are made of having meetings, the money waste for food, tea, and other treatments can be seen and there are exaggerations in billing too.
When it comes to the human resources, there can be seen a very weak staff in Hali-Ela PS. There were no graduate appointments until the year of 2006. Fortunately, after 2007, the PSs in Uva Province have got the chance to have fresh, young, skilled graduates from the Uva Provincial Public Service. When the graduates have started their working in the Hali-Ela PS, the old staff members used to hate the newcomers. However, at the moment of the Hali-Ela PS, there can be seen lots of changes due to the changes in staffing—mixing the skilled personnel with positive attitudes with the traditional non-skilled personnel. But the human resource of this PS is still being challenged by a lack of a performance management process and staff motivations. The working staff members always try to get transfers to other institutions. Most of the officials use to blame on that they are unable to provide proper services due to political insistences. They cannot always go along with the political decisions since there are codes of conduct to be followed.
3.2.4. Central political supports
All the activities of the political parties are hierarchical in Sri Lanka. The representatives of the local governments are the grass root level actors. The central level political leaders use to have all supports from local leaders to organize political activities during the Presidential, Parliamentary and Provincial elections. The central level leaders use to think that they must work in the elections for the party win. If they fail to do so they will get rid of from the party and will discriminate towards the removal of the membership too. Therefore, all the PS members give their full capacity to party progress but not for the progress of their electorates. This high pressure which comes from both central and provincial political leaders has affected negatively for the performances of the periphery leaders. The same challenge is being faced by the Hali-Ela PS members.
The Hali-Ela PS represents all members of the ethnic groups such as Sinhalese, Tamils, and Muslims and it has many activities to do rather than other PSs in Uva Province. Those members must be responsible and accountable to the people who gave votes but they have to give less concern to them and have to give more concern to their highest level party members. Also, if these members fail to do their tasks well at their electorates, they will at first be blamed by so-called central or provincial level political party leaders.
3.2.5. The role of the opposition party
The role of the opposition leaders is nothing at the Hali-Ela PS when its majority is representing the government party. If the opposition members gave their ideas in the policy making process, those ideas were not given enough value by them. Similarly, it happens in the same party due to the very much powerful chairman’s role. The Chairman has been given more powers from the PS Act and he or she used those powers as an authoritarian. Though there are 21 members in the Sabha, all decisions are represented by one man―the PS Chairman. Each one must be accountable for the Maha Sabha (General Assembly) decisions, but in practically no one is accountable due to the major force of the Chairman to those decisions.
3.2.6. General Assembly and other committees
There are many meetings in the Hali-Ela PS. Most of the time, the inefficiency, and the ineffectiveness happen due to the large numbers of meetings. Having many meetings mean it loses the money for arranging unnecessary documentary things and grants for the PS members from the PS fund. Though the meetings represent the people from various fields such as PS members from various ethnic groups, PS members from opposition parties, members of PS committees, Civil Society groups, PS staff members, village leaders, and experts, the final decisions are made by the Chairman and his few colleagues. Because of this malpractice of the authority, people’s participation has discouraged to the activities of the PS. The committee system of governance which was the backbone of the local government system in Sri Lanka for a long period of time is not functioning properly at present (Fernando, N.D. 08).
In the general assembly, discussions should proceed regarding the governance of the PS area. Sometimes, some matters may have discussed in detail in the PS Committees before going to the approval of the general assembly. There are rules and regulations related to the way of conducting all meetings in the PS and they have been enacted by the Parliament of Sri Lanka, Provincial Councils and the Sri Lanka Institute of Local Governance (SLILG) in time to time. But, unfortunately, those are not followed by the PS. The PS members always use to violate them. Sometimes more than 70% of the time takes to talk on national and international issues. For example, if the general assembly is going to be held after a national election, all PS members use to wish the winning parties and members individually at the beginning of the meeting. This is compulsorily prohibited conduct to the PS. Because of these activities, the main decisions, approvals get delay and therefore the PS staff is getting troubles.
3.2.7. Misuse of common property and the tender process
This is very much visible in the Hali-Ela PS and there is no any transparent way for genuine audits of those abuses. Maintenance of office vehicles is the main way to earn private money for most of the PS members. The PS fund is always decreasing its money for the payment of billing related to the vehicle repairs. There are many essential vehicles (Tractors for garbage collection) to maintain for day to day activities of the people but they remain as not functioning for a long period and therefore the services are not proving in time. The laws and the processes that are related to the tender activities and are followed by other institutions are same to the PSs in Sri Lanka. But the formal way has been misused by the PS members and some bureaucrats of the Hali-Ela PS. The contractors of the PS area have disappointed with the PS activities.
4. Discussion and Conclusion
The accountability in terms of every aspect is challenged in the local government institutions in Sri Lanka and therefore it is necessary to have following strategies to change the existing system. The Citizen Charter will include important features of the PS such as vision, mission, objectives, goals and the organizational chart. The Hali-Ela PS has confused with its day-to-day activities because its functions are not clear for all staff members as well as to the elected members. Though the establishment of PS system has passed several decades, the people’s awareness on its role is very negative. Creating a citizen charter to the PS is helpful to give awareness to the people and the newcomers to the office. Its creation is not enough and it must be displayed. It can be displayed on a website, office notice board, and the reception desk. Also, it can be delivered to the people through the committee members of the PS. After having a citizen charter, it is easy to access to the services in time. People know how to access to its services efficiently. For example, if someone needs to meet the Chairman of the PS, then s/he knows in which time or the days that the chairman is available in his seat. The citizen charter should be updated according to the progress of the office. When there is a citizen charter, it leads to reduce the stress on political pressures. Politicians are unable to give more pressures and they can humbly ask people to be stayed and come according to the dates provided by the charter. Then, the conflict between the PS staff and the PS members is going to be solved.
If the PS needs to supply high-quality goods and services to the people, there should be a transparent and accountable way for tender activities. If the experts can compulsorily give their supports to make tender decisions, the Chairman or others are unable to do low-quality works and are also unable to misuse the authority. The PS can increase more civic engagement to the tender and committee activities to ensure social accountability.
The Hali-Ela PS doesn’t have a performance management process (PMP). It has no any performance appraisal tool to measure their working capacity. No one is appreciating their services. If the department of local government is available to supervise the activities of all PSs, it hasn’t given more attention to motivate the working people of the PS yet. Division of work cannot be clearly seen among the lower level civil servants of the PS. Most of the officials are not targeting the objectives and the goals of the Hali-Ela PS. When there is a PMP, it leads to encouraging them towards institutional targets. The PMP helps to manage performances individually and collectively. It further helps to ensure the individual, collective and hierarchical accountabilities of the PS.
There are three layers of the recruitment of the PS staff such as top level recruitments, middle-level recruitments and the lower level people based on no merits. All these recruitments are important to achieve the goals of the PS. If the PS is financially stronger enough, it can do more recruitment to the lower level staff since they play an important role in the ground level activities, for example, garbage collection, cleaning the roads and the city areas, maintenance of the water supplying tank and etc.
Though the Hali-Ela PS is giving more services to maintain the crowded areas to be clean, the people have no value for it. They are always violating the rules and regulations consciously or unconsciously. Therefore, it is better to introduce a fair amount as fines and a service charge. The city of Hali-Ela is most crowded and collecting garbage is a burning issue. The PS uses three or four tractors to collect garbage and they use to run three times in a day. There are more than 150 families in the city area and if the PS is going to be charged 5/= (Rupees) for three turns in a day, it is a fair amount and the PS can properly maintain its vehicles regularly to give better services and to implement a recycle process for garbage management. The output of that service charge for the garbage collection can be analyzed as follows:
Table 01: Output of the service charges for garbage collection1
Thus, apart from the above-mentioned example, there are many sources to earn money, for examples, production of fertilizers by using garbage, facilitating the comfortable public toilets and charging, the establishment of cooperative shops and city centers to provide multiple access and services within the same place. At the beginning, there may be challenges when the PS tries to implement this kind of innovations. But later, it will gain more relaxation to the PS. If the PS is going on with those investments, the PS members can recruit the young people to work there and it may directly be helpful to save votes for next winning of the election. This kind of change is highly expected by the people of the Hali-Ela PS area.
1This analysis only for the most crowded area of the Hali-Ela Pradeshiya Sabha. But, its garbage collecting process is implementing to the whole area of the PS and getting this service charge can be expanded to those areas too. Then, the output may be the highest amount to the PS fund.
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Author (s) Biography
Dodan Godage Kanchana is a post-graduate researcher at the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. She has played different roles as a researcher, university teacher, administrator in the public and private sector institutions. Her research focuses on public policy, good governance, performance management, and political culture.
Accountability in Local Government Institutions in Sri Lanka: A Study on the Hali-Ela Pradeshiya Sabha by South Asian Youth Research Institute for Development is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.